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Medieval Art - Cluny I, Cluny II, Cluny III. L’abbaye est dévastée en 1562 et en 1574 pendant les Guerres de Religion. Last Judgment Tympanum, Cathedral of St. Lazare, Autun. O God, by whose grace thy servants, the Holy Abbots of Cluny, enkindled with the fire of thy love, became burning and shining lights in thy Church : Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline, and may ever walk before thee as children of light; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who with thee, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, liveth and reigneth, one God, now and forever. El 1481 el succeí Jaume II d'Amboise, que presidí durant trenta quatre anys, i … The new pious outlook of lay leaders enabled the enforcement of the Truce of God movement to curb aristocratic violence. Henry was infused with a sense of his sacramental role as a delegate of Christ in the temporal sphere. 1088 Cluny III baut auf der Grundlage der Abtei Kirchen von Cluny I (Odo) und Cluny II (Mayeul). The consecration of the main altar of Cluny III by Pope Urban II in 1095, in the presence of abbot St Hugh, from the Miscellanea secundum usum Ordinis Cluniacensis, late 12th – early 13th century, folio 91r (Illuminated Manuscript no. Many other Benedictine monasteries, even those of earlier formation, came to regard Cluny as their guide. Cluny spread the custom of veneration of the king as patron and support of the Church, and in turn the conduct of 11th-century kings, and their spiritual outlook, appeared to undergo a change. But by the time Peter died, newer and more austere orders such as the Cistercians were generating the next wave of ecclesiastical reform. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Durch eine Änderung der Liturgie hatte damals die Heiligenverehrung stark zugenommen. Cluny's agreement to offer perpetual prayer (laus perennis, literally "perpetual praise") meant that it had increased a specialization in roles. The reforms introduced at Cluny were in some measure traceable to the influence of Benedict of Aniane, who had put forward his new ideas at the first great meeting of the abbots of the order held at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in 817. Sort by: Top Voted. 17716, Bibliotheque National de France, Paris) Cluny III volt a kor legnagyobb keresztény temploma, öthajós épület kettős kereszthajóval. Es hat nämlich die vergrößerte Choranlage eingeführt. It was founded in 910 by William I of Aquitaine, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. Starting from the 12th century, Cluny had serious financial problems mainly because of the cost of building the third abbey (Cluny III). Up Next. This was the biggest annuity that the Order ever received from king or layman, and it was never surpassed. p.262. Ottone fu tra i pochi che Gregorio indicò come suoi possibili successori al Soglio di Pietro. Autun / París - ROLLIER-HANSELMANN, Juliette; i altres (2011).  With the Pope across the Alps in Italy, this meant the monastery was essentially independent. - *0 10 20 30 M FIGURE 1. Joan III de Borbó, que el succeí el 1456, era monjo de Sant Andreu d'Avinyó; presidí a Cluny durant vint-i-dos anys, donant noves lleis per a conservar la disciplina monàstica, i encara que el nomenaren bisbe, va voler rebre sepultura a Cluny. The best-preserved Cluniac houses in England are Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk, and Wenlock Priory, Shropshire. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. Plan of the church of Cluny II superimposed on the plan of Cluny III. Cluny had a series of strong abbots, and Hugh of Semur was one of that line. The head of their Order was the Abbot at Cluny. Its extensive library and archives were burned in 1793 and the church was given up to plundering. C’était un monument majeur de la deuxième moitié du 10e siècle, dans un style préroman original et développé. L’abbaye de Cluny III. (nezachovali sa). The height of Cluniac influence was from the second half of the 10th century through the early 12th. Cluny et la société chrétienne face à l'hérésie, au judaïsme et à l'islam, 1000-1150, Paris (2e éd. He nominated Berno as the first Abbot of Cluny, subject only to Pope Sergius III. Cluny Abbey (or Cluni, or Clugny, French pronunciation: [klyˈni]) is a Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.It was built in the Romanesque style, with three churches built in succession from the 10th to the early 12th centuries.. Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910. He nominated Berno as the first abbot of Cluny, subject only to Pope Sergius III. As other religious orders such as the Cistercians in the 12th and then the Mendicants in the 13th century arose within the Western Christian church, the competition gradually weakened the status and influence of the abbey. Details Title: Cluny II (France) 3. Cluny II carauterízase por una cabecera complexa con absidiolos y un atriu na fachada oeste, con un nártex ente ésti y la nave. It is thought that there were only three Cluniac nunneries in England, one of them being Delapré Abbey at Northampton. Cluny III had four aisles and an ambulatory around the main apse with five radiating chapels, two secondary apses on either arm of each one of the two transept and a two-tower façade, 435 feet long by 125 feet wide, 125 feet at the choir. Viszont csorbát szenved az az elv, hogy a rend tagjainak is dolgozni kell. As reconstructed by Kenneth J. Conant, Cluny III was a five-aisle basilica with double transepts and five radiating chapels around the apse. (1970) "Mediaeval Academy Excavations at Cluny, X. XII–XIX; Marten, Lex et P., ‘Peintures Murales de la Chapelle du Château des Moines de Cluny à Berzé la Ville’, Bulletin archéologique du Comite des Travaux historiques et scientifiques, 1893, no. , O God, by whose grace your servants the Holy Abbots of Cluny, Kindled with the flame of your love, became burning and shining lights in your Church: Grant that we also may be aflame with the spirit of love and discipline, and walk before you as children of light; through Jesus Christ our Lord, who lives and reigns with you, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, one God, now and forever.. Restitutions 3D de Cluny II, des étapes de la destruction de Cluny III,de la salle capitulaire, de l’hôtel Saint Hugues, et d'une rue de Cluny. Others still were stored away in the Cluny town hall. Una ricca decorazione scultorea, di tipo classicheggiante, rivestiva i capitelli e i portali. He nominated Berno as the first Abbot of Cluny, subject only to Pope Sergius III. It is thought he was intent on observing the latest trends—seeing what worked and what didn’t—before embarking on this great building project. The consecration of the main altar of Cluny III by Pope Urban II in 1095, in the presence of abbot St Hugh, from the Miscellanea secundum usum Ordinis Cluniacensis, late 12th – early 13th century, folio 91r (Illuminated Manuscript no. The Spanish wealth donated to Cluny publicized the rise of the Spanish Christians, and drew central Spain for the first time into the larger European orbit. De tre påfølgende kirkene, konvensjonelt kalt for Cluny I, II og III reiste klosteret den største bygningen i Europa før Peterskirken ble reist i Roma på 1500-tallet. They are now held by the Bibliothèque nationale de France at Paris. ", Conant, Kenneth John. Saint-Pierre, Moissac. The customs of Cluny represented a shift from the earlier ideal of a Benedictine monastery as an agriculturally self-sufficient unit. It became a powerful monastic congregation that owned and operated the network of monasteries and priories, under the authority of the central abbey at Cluny. Bulletin du centre d’études médiévales d’Auxerre. Saône-et-Loire).CLUNY, Abbazia di ebbe origine da una comunità di dodici monaci provenienti dal monastero di Baume-les-Messieurs, i quali fondarono la nuova abbazia per volontà del duca Guglielmo d'Aquitania. Despite the monastic ideal of a frugal life, Cluny Abbey commissioned candelabras of solid silver and gold chalices made with precious gems for use at the abbey Masses. Kenneth John Conant, "Cluny Studies, 1968–1975. (opat Maiolus, 981), románská basilika s plochým dřevěným stropem, byl vzorem např. It was a highly original and successful system, The Abbots of Cluny became leaders on the international stage and the monastery of Cluny was considered the grandest, most prestigious and best-endowed monastic institution in Europe. Abbediet Cluny (eller Cluni og Clugny, latin: Cluniacum) blev grundlagt 2. september 909 af Vilhelm 1., greve af Auvergne.Han indsatte Berno som den første abbed og lagde det direkte under paven (Klostret ligger nær Mâcon i det moderne franske departement Saône-et-Loire i Bourgogne.Området var dækket af skov og brugt til jagt. Ricostruzione di Cluny II Cluny III. This is the currently selected item. The early small church of Duke William, built under Abbot Berno, had already been replaced by the so-called Cluny II (built between 955 and 1000), which was in turn destroyed to build Cluny III following a colossal design begun in 1088. In the 1088 Cluny III was built on the foundations of the abbey church of Cluny I (Odón) and Cluny II (Mayeul) because they were too small for the community of monks. "Congregation of Cluny." Cluny's influence spread into the British Isles in the 11th century, first at Lewes, and then elsewhere. In 1928, the site was excavated by the American archaeologist Kenneth J. Conant with the backing of the Medieval Academy of America. 17716, Bibliotheque National de France, Paris) Histoire de l'ordre de Cluny depuis la fondation de l'abbaye jusqu'à la mort de Pierre-le-Vénérable (909-1157). Romanesque art in Italy. Over the next twenty years the Abbey's immense walls were quarried for stone that was used in rebuilding the town. Next lesson. It was founded in 910 by William I of Aquitaine, Count of Auvergne, who installed Abbot Berno and placed the abbey under the immediate authority of Pope Sergius III. ", École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, Alston, George Cyprian. Seen as an example of the excesses of the Ancien Régime, the monastic buildings and most of the church were destroyed in the French Revolution. Sous l’abbé Hugues de Semur (1049-1109), Cluny connaît son plus grand essor. We believe that the brilliant histories of art belong to everyone, no matter their background. The abbey was notable for its stricter adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict, whereby Cluny became acknowledged as the leader of western monasticism. Although the monks – who never numbered more than 60 – lived in relative luxury during this period, the political and religious wars of the 16th century further weakened the abbey's status in Christendom. He acknowledged that the Black Monks no longer supported themselves by physical labor. Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910. (Alfonso VI re-established it in 1077, and confirmed it in 1090.) El cuartu abá de Cluny (954-994), Maïeul de Cluny, manda construyir Cluny II a partir del añu 948, pa reemplazar l'edificiu presistente, que se consideraba bien pequeñu; la ilesia abacial conságrase en 981. The Cluniac establishment found itself closely identified with the Papacy. The third convent on the site, the great Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul known as Cluny III (mainly 1088–1130), was the largest church, monastic or otherwise, in the world until St. Peter’s, Rome, was completed in the seventeenth century.  It was stipulated that the monastery would be free from local authorities, lay or ecclesiastical, and subject only to the Pope, with the proviso that even he could not seize the property, divide or give it to someone else or appoint an abbot without the consent of the monks. In England, Edward the Confessor was later canonized. In the fragmented and localized Europe of the 10th and 11th centuries, the Cluniac network extended its reforming influence far. Details Title: Cluny II (France) L’abbé Odilon de Mercœur (994-1049), agrandit l’abbatiale et le monastère. The abbey's estate was sold in 1798 for 2,140,000 francs. Cluny III was the high point of Romanesque architecture in France, and, heralding the Gothic, it emphasized the continuity of architecture. In building the third and final church at Cluny, the monastery constructed what was to remain the largest building in Europe until the 16th century when the new St. Peter's in Rome was rebuilt. The British Museum holds some sixty or so charters originating from Cluny. Well-born and educated Cluniac priors worked eagerly with local royal and aristocratic patrons of their houses, filled responsible positions in their chanceries and were appointed to bishoprics. Until the reign of Henry VI, all Cluniac houses in England were French, governed by French priors and directly controlled from Cluny. (CLUNI, CLUGNI, or CLUGNY) The earliest reform, which became practically a distinct order, within the Benedictine family.It originated at Cluny, a town in Saone-et-Loire, fifteen miles northwest of Mâcon, where in 910 William the Pious, Duke of Aquitaine, founded an abbey and endowed it with his entire domain. Architetto di Cluny III fu Gunzo, già abate di Baume e ritiratosi a Cluny sotto Odilone. Au fil des décennies, l'abbaye connaît tour à tour plusieurs chantiers, connus sous le nom de Cluny I, II et III. Monastic intercession was believed indispensable to achieving a state of grace, and lay rulers competed to be remembered in Cluny's endless prayers; this inspired the endowments in land and benefices that made other arts possible. Cluny Abbey (or Cluni, or Clugny, French pronunciation: [klyˈni]) is a Benedictine monastery in Cluny, Saône-et-Loire, France.It was built in the Romanesque style, with three churches built in succession from the 10th to the early 12th centuries.. Cluny was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910. Artifacts exemplifying the wealth of Cluny Abbey are today on display at the Musée de Cluny in Paris. The Order did not have an interest in founding many new houses for women, so their presence was always limited. Cluny was not known for the severity of its discipline or its asceticism, but the abbots of Cluny supported the revival of the papacy and the reforms of Pope Gregory VII. BUCEMA - ROUX-PERINO, Julie (2008). Cluny III et Cluny II Le grand transept, à quatre absidioles, avait une longueur de 75 m. Le petit transept, de 59 m de long, ne comportait que deux absidioles. In the fragmented and localized Europe of the 10th and 11th centuries, the Cluniac network extended its reforming influence far. Over the next 250 years, the abbey never regained its power or position within European Christianity. Histoire de l'ordre de Cluny depuis la fondation de l'abbaye jusqu'à la mort de Pierre-le-Vénérable (909-1157). All but one of the English and Scottish Cluniac houses which were larger than cells were known as priories, symbolising their subordination to Cluny. Konstruksjonen av Cluny II, ca.  In 1790 during the French Revolution, the abbey was sacked and mostly destroyed, with only a small part surviving. The Alfonsine census enabled Abbot Hugh (who died in 1109) to undertake construction of the huge third abbey church. Charity given to the poor also increased the expenditure. Free of lay and episcopal interference, and responsible only to the papacy (which was in a state of weakness and disorder, with rival popes supported by competing nobles), Cluny was seen to have revitalized the Norman church, reorganized the royal French monastery at Fleury and inspired St Dunstan in England. In total the surviving parts amount to about 10% of the original floor space of Cluny III. Stavba Cluny I. začala okolo 915 a vysvätená bola 927. Kostel Cluny II. Last Judgment Tympanum, Cathedral of St. Lazare, Autun. The early Cluniac establishments had offered refuges from a disordered world but by the late 11th century, Cluniac piety permeated society. Ferdinand fixed the sum at 1,000 golden aurei, an amount which Alfonso VI doubled in 1090. La Iglesia de Cluny, con planta de cinco naves en el cuerpo principal de la iglesia, posee crucero doble, dándole a la planta forma de cruz arzobispal. CLUNY II Cluny II.Successivamente, a causa della crescita demografica, l’abate di Mayeul avviò dei lavori di ampliamento degli edifici e per la costruzione di una nuova chiesa chiamata Cluny II, oggi conosciuta solo tramite scavi archeologici.La chiesa venne inaugurata nel 981 e dalla pianta di questa presero spunto numerose chiese contemporanee. The establishment of the Benedictine Order was a keystone to the stability of European society that was achieved in the 11th century. The three successive churches are conventionally called Cluny I, II and III. Cluny III. Plan plan, it was not with circulation opened onto three parallel aisl like Benedictine abbeys indeb Cluny II.8 Builders at rural abbeys that perennially resisted the embrace of Cluny would be more pragmatic and fore-sighted. It is largely the remains of Cluny III that are visible today, but models throughout the Abbey show the evolution of the buildings. Achieved in 927, Cluny I was succeeded by Cluny II, consecrated in 981 to house … podle plánů architekta Hézelona z Liege; chór byl vysvěcen roku 1095, celý kostel roku 1130 za opata Petra Ctihodného. The monastery was rebuilt by odilo. L'alzato della nave centrale era a tre piani: archi acuti in basso, finto matroneo al centro, finestre in alto. SAPIN Chr., L'autel de Cluny II. He waited until he had been in that position for 40 years before beginning construction on the monumental project that would be Cluny III. Starting around 1334, the Abbots of Cluny maintained a townhouse in Paris known as the Hôtel de Cluny, which has been a public museum since 1843. The Cluniac houses, being directly under the supervision of the Abbot of Cluny, the head of the Order, were styled priories, not abbeys. By the start of the 14th century, the pope was frequently naming the abbots of Cluny. We believe art has the power to transform lives and to build understanding across cultures. It was dedicated to St Peter. pro klášterní kostel v Hirsau v Německu. Of those that were left, some were burned in 1790 by a rioting mob during the French Revolution. By the time of the French Revolution, the monks were so thoroughly identified with the Ancien Régime that the order was suppressed in France in 1790 and the monastery at Cluny almost totally demolished in 1810. podle plánů architekta Hézelona z Liege; chór byl vysvěcen roku 1095, celý kostel roku 1130 za opata Petra Ctihodného. Modern excavations of the Abbey began in 1927 under the direction of Kenneth John Conant, American architectural historian of Harvard University, and continued (although not continuously) until 1950. Next lesson. The construction of Cluny II, ca. This is the currently selected item. Outside monastic structures, the rise of English and French nationalism created a climate unfavourable to the existence of monasteries autocratically ruled by a head residing in Burgundy. 955 - 981 , begynte etter de destruktive ungarske herjingene i 953 og som førte til … Saint-Pierre, Moissac. Sant'Ugo decise così di ricostruire integralmente la chiesa (Cluny III) per renderla degna della sua reputazione. Cluny reached its apogee of power and influence under Peter, as its monks became bishops, legates, and cardinals throughout France and the Holy Roman Empire. Vol. Towers marked the major and minor crossings of the nave, the major transept arms, and the western facade. Instead of being limited to the traditional fare of broth and porridge, the monks ate very well, enjoying roasted chickens (a luxury in France then), wines from their vineyards and cheeses made by their employees. The exception was the priory at Paisley which was raised to the status of an abbey in 1245 answerable only to the Pope. El abad Majolus (954-994), amigo de Odón el Grande, sustituyo la primitiva iglesia por un nuevo templo, que ha pasado con la denominación de Cluny II, esta obra fue inaugurada en 981. The Church of Cluny, with a floor of five naves in the main body of the church and two crossings, has the floor plan of the shape of an archbishop’s cross. Cluny III seems to have been built with the idea of plucking the best attributes from what had been created before and synthesizing them into a grandiose … The Cluniac monks devoted themselves to almost constant prayer, thus elevating their position into a profession. Under the strain, some English houses, such as Lenton Priory, Nottingham, were naturalized (Lenton in 1392) and no longer regarded as alien priories, weakening the Cluniac structure. SAPIN Chr., L'abbatiale de Cluny II sous saint Hugues Le gouvernement d'Hugues de Semur, Actes du congrès scientifique international (Cluny, 1988), p. 435-460. In the early 12th century, the order lost momentum under poor government. Saint-Pierre, Moissac. An interconnected world is not as recent as we think. The Order of Cluny was suppressed during the French Revolution. Saint-Pierre, Moissac. All English and Scottish Cluniacs were bound to cross to France to Cluny to consult or be consulted unless the abbot chose to come to Britain, which occurred five times in the 13th century, and only twice in the 14th. Sort by: Top Voted. L’abbatiale Cluny II, parfois appelée Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux, datait des années 955 à 980.Elle fut construite au sud de Cluny I, à l’emplacement du grand cloître actuel. Az épület teljes hossza 187,31 a kereszthajó 73,75, a keresztház hossza szintén 73,75 a középhajó magassága 29,50 a középhajó szélessége 14,74 m volt. Degli edifici conventuali sussistono una parte medievale e … Cluny Abbey. In 910, William I, Duke of Aquitaine "the Pious", and Count of Auvergne, founded the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny on a modest scale, as the motherhouse of the Congregation of Cluny. pro klášterní kostel v Hirsau v Německu. La chiesa di Cluny, divenuta il luogo di maggiore richiamo monastico ed anche ecclesiale della cristianità, divenne troppo piccola per l'affluenza dei fedeli.Nel 1088 l'abate Ugo decise la costruzione della terza chiesa abbaziale (chiesa di San Pietro e Paolo o "Cluny III"). It was subsequently revitalized under Abbot Peter the Venerable (died 1156), who brought lax priories back into line and returned to stricter discipline. The building campaign was financed by the annual census established by Ferdinand I of León, ruler of a united León-Castile, some time between 1053 and 1065. 17716, Bibliotheque National de France, Paris) Furthermore, poor management of the abbey's estates and the unwillingness of its subsidiary priories to pay their share of the annual taxable quotas annually reduced Cluny's total revenues. ), and workshop, Miniature of Christ’s Side Wound and Instruments of the Passion from the Prayer Book of Bonne of Luxembourg, Four styles of English medieval architecture at Ely Cathedral, Hiding the divine in a medieval Madonna: Shrine of the Virgin, Porta Sant'Alipio Mosaic, Basilica San Marco, Venice, Spanish Gothic cathedrals, an introduction. Henry I of England's annual grant from 1131 of 100 marks of silver, not gold, seemed little by comparison. The Church of Cluny, with a floor of five naves in the main body of the church and two crossings, has the floor plan of the shape of an archbishop’s cross. This is the period that achieved the final Christianization of the heartland of Europe. Alla morte di Gregorio VII venne eletto però Desiderio, abate di Montecassino , che prese il nome di Vittore III . I lavori iniziarono nel 1088 e proseguirono sino al 1095 quando Urbano II in occasione del viaggio in Francia dove si predicò la prima crociata consacrò l'altare maggiore il 25 ottobre. Today, little more than one of the original eight towers remains of the whole monastery. Em 910 surge em França (Borgonha) a Ordem de Cluny com Guilherme, duque de Aquitânia. We created Smarthistory to provide students around the world with the highest-quality educational resources for art and cultural heritage—for free. These include the southern transept and its bell-tower, and the lower parts of the two west front towers. Cluny, town, east-central France, Saône-et-Loire département, Burgundy (Bourgogne) région, northwest of Mâcon.It owed its early importance to its celebrated Benedictine abbey, founded in 910 by Duke William the Pious of Aquitaine.The newly founded order introduced reform in a period of general monastic laxity, returning to a strict observance of the Benedictine Rule. It was a storehouse of numerous very valuable manuscripts. Cluny III seems to have been built with the idea of plucking the best attributes from what had been created before and synthesizing them into a grandiose … The first women members were admitted to the Order during the 11th century.. Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. The appropriate deeds made all assets of the added Abby sacred, and to take them was to commit sacrilege. Contemporary patrons normally retained a proprietary interest and expected to install their kinsmen as abbots. Étude de la façade gothique. Im Januar 1120, vor 900 Jahren, wurde in Cluny der 1109 gestorbene Abt und Bauherr Hugo von Papst Calixt II. The Papal Schism of 1378 to 1409 further divided loyalties: France recognizing a pope at Avignon and England one at Rome, interfered with the relations between Cluny and its dependent houses. BUCEMA - ROUX-PERINO, Julie (2008).  The deed of gift included vineyards, fields, meadows, woods, waters, mills, serfs, and lands both cultivated and uncultivated. During the religious conflicts of 1562, the Huguenots sacked the abbey, destroying or dispersing many of the manuscripts. Up Next. L’abbaye de Cluny III. Die Kirche von Cluny, zu fünf Schiffe in den Hauptteil der Kirche Grundriss, hat Cruise verdoppelt, wodurch die Grundriss ein Kreuz Erzbischof. Free of lay and episcopal interference, and responsible only to the papacy (which was in a state of weakness and disorder, with rival popes supported by competing nobles), Cluny was seen to have revitalized the Norman church, reorganized the royal French monastery at Fleury and inspired St Dunstan in England. England Norman rulers were redefining the form of the stone masonry church. Ottó uralkodása ... Cluny-ben jobban megvalósult a szerzetesek és a világi emberek elkülönülése, hiszen a szerzeteseknek nem kell kétkezi munkát végezni, az élelmiszert megveszik a laikus testvérektől. Da sie zu klein für die Gemeinschaft der Mönche waren. In Germany, the penetration of Cluniac ideals was effected in concert with Henry III of the Salian dynasty, who had married a daughter of the duke of Aquitaine. Cluny II, est l’une des plus importantes églises de l’époque, elle est consacrée le 14 février 981. Proporzioni strettamente matematiche e applicazione costante dei rapporti modulari ne dominavano ogni aspetto. The earliest basilica was the world's largest church until the St. Peter's Basilica construction began in Rome..
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