volksgruppe in bhutan

Bhutan is arguably the world’s happiest country. [77] While the entire country collectively produces 2,200,000 metric tons (2,200,000 long tons; 2,400,000 short tons) of carbon dioxide a year, the immense forest covering 72% of the country acts as a carbon sink, absorbing more than four million tons of carbon dioxide every year. Before the 1980s, the Lhotshampa (Nepali-speaking community), mainly based in southern Bhutan, constituted approximately 30% of the population. I had never thought that Bhutan would have bad roads. The Bhutanese royals were hosted by the Japanese imperial family during a state visit in 2011. The SAARC Development Fund is based in Thimphu. [129], Bhutan is divided into twenty Dzongkhag (districts), administered by a body called the Dzongkhag Tshogdu. [194], While Bhutanese citizens are free to travel abroad, Bhutan is viewed as inaccessible by many foreigners. [93], Bhutan has diplomatic relations with 53 countries and the European Union and has missions in India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Kuwait and Belgium. [141], Incomes of over Nu 100,000 per annum are taxed, but as Bhutan is currently one of the world's least developed countries, very few wage and salary earners qualify. In response, Bhutan has implemented an insurance scheme, begun constructing solar powered alarm fences, watch towers, and search lights, and has provided fodder and salt licks outside human settlement areas to encourage animals to stay away. Members of Bhutanese police and army were involved in burning of Lhotshampa houses, land confiscation and other widespread human rights abuses including arrest, torture and rape of Lhotshampas involved in political protests. [47][48], When Ngawang Namgyal died in 1651, his passing was kept secret for 54 years. [179] Starting in the 1980s, Bhutan adopted a policy of "One Nation One People" to exert cultural (in language, dress and religion) and political dominance of the majority Drukpa people. Bhutan's exports, principally electricity, cardamom, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit, precious stones and spices, total €128 million (2000 est.). Dance dramas and masked dances such as the Cham dance are common traditional features at festivals, usually accompanied by traditional music. These are the Royal University of Bhutan and Khesar Gyalpo University of Medical Sciences, respectively. Grübelst du über "Volksgruppe in Bhutan" nach? Traditional architecture uses no nails or iron bars in construction. "The Last Shangri-La?". Handicrafts, particularly weaving and the manufacture of religious art for home altars, are a small cottage industry. It now seems obvious given the altitude, the continuous hyper-high mountains towering up to over 7,500 meters and the farming/rural way of life. [60], Bhutan is on the southern slopes of the eastern Himalayas, landlocked between the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north and the Indian states of Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam to west and south and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh to the east. [186], Source: UN World Population Prospects[187], Basic healthcare in Bhutan is free, as provided by the Constitution of Bhutan. [130], Bhutan's currency is the ngultrum, whose value is fixed to the Indian rupee. Bhutan (/ b uː ˈ t ɑː n / (); Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་, romanized: Druk Yul, [ʈuk̚˩.yː˩]), officially known as the Kingdom of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་, romanized: Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in the Eastern Himalayas.It is bordered by China to the north and India to the south. Bhutan has four distinct seasons in a year. It lies between latitudes 26°N and 29°N, and longitudes 88°E and 93°E. In the first millennium, the Vajrayana school of Buddhism spread to Bhutan from the southern Pala Empire of Bengal. The forests of the central Bhutan mountains consist of Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests in higher elevations and Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests in lower elevations. Women wear an ankle-length dress, the kira, which is clipped at the shoulders with two identical brooches called the koma and tied at the waist with kera. Bhutan is also well known for mountain adventure trekking and hiking. Bhutan's sixth Five-Year Plan (1987–92) included a policy of 'one nation, one people' and introduced a code of traditional Drukpa dress and etiquette called Driglam Namzhag . [109][181] Following forcible deportation from Bhutan, Lhotshampas spent almost two decades in refugee camps in Nepal and were resettled in various western countries such as the United States between 2007–2012. [57], In 1999, the government lifted a ban on television and internet, making Bhutan one of the last countries to introduce television. Paro Airport is the only international airport in Bhutan. Zero Waste Hour. [184] The current legal framework, in principle guarantees freedom of religion; proselytism, however, is forbidden by a royal government decision[184] and by judicial interpretation of the Constitution. [207] The modern rigsar is played on a mix of traditional instruments and electronic keyboards, and dates back to the early 1990s; it shows the influence of Indian popular music, a hybrid form of traditional and Western popular influences.[208][209]. Approximately 269 square kilometers (104 sq mi) remain under discussion between China and Bhutan. PDP leader Tshering Tobgay served as Prime Minister from 2013 to 2018. [168], The Lateral Road is Bhutan's primary east–west corridor, connecting the towns of Phuentsholing in the southwest to Trashigang in the east. Kingdom of Bhutan. Bhutan has a gross domestic product of around US$5.855 billion (adjusted to purchasing power parity), making it the 158th-largest economy in the world. In 1885, Ugyen Wangchuck was able to consolidate power, and began cultivating closer ties with the British in the subcontinent. [149], There are Five Commercial Banks in the country and two largest banks are the Bank of Bhutan and the Bhutan National Bank which are based in Thimphu. This was followed by the first national parliamentary elections in December 2007 and March 2008. The EIC's surveyor general James Rennell first anglicized the French name as "Bootan," and then popularized the distinction between it and Greater Tibet. Bhutan, country of south-central Asia, located on the eastern ridges of the Himalayas. [214] The unemployment rate among women is also higher than that of men. In 2007, Bhutan had the second-fastest-growing economy in the world, with an annual economic growth rate of 22.4 percent. The census operations, thus, quickly became a tool for the identification, dispossession eviction and banishment of dissidents, the wealthy, the educated, and various other categories of Lhotshampa citizen. [214], India's Ministry of External Affairs provides financial aid to its neighbors as "technical and economic cooperation with other countries and advances to foreign governments.". Various subsects of Buddhism emerged that were patronized by the various Mongol warlords. [31] Others include Lho Mon ("Dark Southland"), Lho Tsendenjong ("Southland of the Cypress"), Lhomen Khazhi ("Southland of the Four Approaches") and Lho Menjong ("Southland of the Herbs"). The script, locally called Chhokey (literally, "Dharma language"), is identical to classical Tibetan. In Bhutanese families, inheritance generally passes matrilineally through the female rather than the male line. [116] Careful scrutiny has been used to prevent their relatives from getting ID cards and voting rights. [190] Currently, there are 121 teachers from India placed in schools across Bhutan. [122] This resulted in widespread unrest and political demonstrations. The dances are performed by monks and laypeople dressed in colourful costumes and painted masks, and the dancers take … [86] Jigme Thinley served as Prime Minister from 2008 to 2013. The first development phase, providing 50,000 square feet of office and data centre space across a five-acre campus, was completed in 2011 and is now 45 percent occupied. The current king, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, wed Jetsun Pema, 21, a commoner and daughter of a pilot, on 13 October 2011. [198], Bhutanese architecture remains distinctively traditional, employing rammed earth and wattle and daub construction methods, stone masonry, and intricate woodwork around windows and roofs. The names Lhomon Tsendenjong (Sandalwood Country), and Lhomon Khashi, or Southern Mon (country of four approaches), have been found in ancient Bhutanese and Tibetan chronicles. Get reminders for Winter Solstice – MarkTheDay.com", "Losar Festival Nepal : Tamu, Sherpa, Tibetan, Gyalpo Lhosar", "From Ngesem Ngesem to Khu Khu Khu ... Rigsar music woos local music fans", "Bhutan Wins Again! [71] This is reflected in the decision to maintain at least sixty percent of the land area under forest cover, to designate more than 40%[72][73] of its territory as national parks, reserves and other protected areas, and most recently to identify a further nine percent of land area as biodiversity corridors linking the protected areas. According to the Swiss-based International Union for Conservation of Nature, Bhutan is viewed as a model for proactive conservation initiatives. Bhutan's national and most popular sport is archery. [147], Bhutan's largest export is hydroelectricity. Since the beginning of modern education in Bhutan, teachers from India, especially Kerala have served in some of the most remote villages of Bhutan. [214], Throughout Bhutan, there has been an improvement in reproductive health services that has led to a drastic drop in maternal mortality rate, dropping from 1,000 in 1990 to 180 in 2010. [61] The lowest point, at 98 m (322 ft), is in the valley of Drangme Chhu, where the river crosses the border with India. [82], Bhutan has enforced a plastic ban rule from 1 April 2019, where plastic bags were replaced by alternative bags made of jute and other biodegradable material.[83]. In the temperate zone, grey langur, tiger, goral and serow are found in mixed conifer, broadleaf and pine forests. [27][28][29], Since the 17th century, Bhutan's official name has been Druk yul (literally, "country of the Drukpa Lineage" or "the Land of the Thunder Dragon," a reference to the country's dominant Buddhist sect); "Bhutan" appears only in English-language official correspondence. Bhutan joined the United Nations in 1971. Technically viable solar energy generation capacity is around 12,000 MW and wind around 760 MW. Eastern Bhutan Eastern Bhutan is the Kingdom’s least discovered part, but very worthwile visiting with its’ many ancient spiritual sites. These sites include: Ancient Ruin of Drukgyel Dzong,[157] Bumdelling Wildlife Sanctuary,[158] Dzongs: the centre of temporal and religious authorities (Punakha Dzong, Wangdue Phodrang Dzong, Paro Dzong, Trongsa Dzong and Dagana Dzong),[159] Jigme Dorji National Park (JDNP),[160] Royal Manas National Park (RMNP),[161] Sacred Sites associated with Phajo Drugom Zhigpo and his descendants,[162] Sakteng Wildlife Sanctuary (SWS),[163] and Tamzhing Monastery. Bhutan se află pe versantul sudic al Munților Himalaya, aflăndu-se între China și India. The Tourism Council of Bhutan is pleased to present the River Survey Report 2020. They were arrested and questioned, and often beaten, tortured and held for months without trial.

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